The events of 9/11 have radically altered the entire discussion of Minorities – especially Muslim ones – and the issue of terrorism. As real as is the threat of al-Qaida and its international connections, many regimes of the world have seized on the US Global War against Terrorism to legitimize their own repression of Muslim and even Non-Muslim minorities. We have witnessed this in both friendly state, China and Pakistan. Most of the heterogeneous populated states consist of different ethnic communities. Each ethnic identity has different voices and demands, for the accomplishment of which, a continuous struggle is going on, influencing the national politics. Pakistan and China like other developing states of the world is also in front of identity crisis almost in there important federating units, Pakistan in Baluchistan and China in Xinjiang, with different concerns. These concerns are sometimes ethno-nationality, decentralization of powers, provincial autonomy and economic discrepancies. After the dismemberment of East Pakistan, the most sensitive and hot issue is the case of Baluchistan’s ethno-national movement which sometimes in different occasions seem to be transformed to a militant or an insurgent group for fulfillment of their objectives. And same problem in china’s Xinjiang in the case of the Uyghur. This sense of ethnic difference has to a large extent formed the basis of longstanding anti-Han sentiment among the Xinjiang Uyghur’s. The Chinese leadership has also for decades perceived these sentiments as the presence of a separatist movement in Xinjiang. The Uyghur’s’ situation is complicated by the fact that Xinjiang – a vast oil- and gas-rich swath of territory in China’s northwest occupying one-sixth of the country’s area – is of great strategic value. The Chinese government has repeatedly emphasized the importance of interethnic harmony in Xinjiang and rapid integration of the Uyghur’s into the Han-dominated Chinese society. Yet, many Uyghur’s see policies intended to promote these goals as attempts to suppress their culture and religion. Xinxiang conflict is one of the most danger threats to the relation of both the countries
Ethno-Nationalism, Baluchistan, Accomplishment, Xinjiang Militancy, Underdevelopment, Multidimensional, Socio-Economic
States which have their colonial past possess a distinct socio-cultural and politico-economic history. But after getting independence these states unfortunately came in the grip of politically corrupt politicians and their governmental policies carrying their infant sates and their people to warfare situations. According to Adeel Khan the conflicting situation in Pakistan is due to a continuous struggle among the powerful and non-powerful groups and this conflict is due to power in politics. So if the political power is shared by different ethnic groups for minimization of tension, stability and politico-economic development will obviously come true(A. Khan 2005). Tahir Amin says that it is necessary that each ethnic group must be taken into account with equal footings and contribution in national political affairs in order to avoid a civil war in a state(Amin 1988).
The largest geography with smallest population and poorest in socio-economic developments, despite of, being rich in mineral resources, with low presence in high level employment and nominal political representation in national politics in Pakistan is the province of Baluchistan, and in China the province of Xinjiang. Both provinces are very much important for their states on different level. Baluchistan is a gate-way to Central Asian republics, Afghanistan, China, Europe and Western Asia is also in its approach because of Gawder Port and such other mega projects and that’s why rule of law, peace, development and political and economic stability are priority areas both for Baluchistan and Pakistan.
Its population consists of two types of people Balochis and Pashtoons. Southern and Northwestern people are Pashtoons and have a political influence due to influx of Afghan refugees increasing numerical strength, especially in Quetta. The Balochis are divided mainly 3into two groups i.e Balochi and Brahui on the basis of language. These two groups are further divided into sub-groups or tribes i.e Marris, Bugtis, Bizonjos. Major ethnic groups speak P3ukhto, Balochi, Brahvi and Mongals in Balochistan(Majeed 2010).
According to British colonial census Balochi and Brahvi were declared as two separate and distinct languages and ethnic groups. With the inception of Baloch nationalist movement, the term Baloch encircles in itself not only Brahvi group but other linguistic groups of the southern Balochistan as well and these groups recognized themselves as a part of the ‘ Baloch nation’ and distinct from Pukhtoon and other Aethnic groups. Anyhow, Brahvi as the most prominent non- Baloch identity get involved in Baloch nationalist politics and so raised demand of provincial autonomy. The demands raised by Balochi peoples are very seldom addressed by the central government actually and due to these grievances some political parties and insurgent groups are not happy to accommodate themselves with in the same state structure and therefore raise the voice of separation(Jehan 1972).
Pak- China relation in friendship and trade begins since China’s year of independence 1949. Pakistan is the first country in the world to accept china at UNO summit. China respects the stand and support of Pakistan. China is the only country in the world, which helps Pakistan at every environment, for instance trade, commerce, agriculture, defense etc. Presently they are contributing on large scale in Power and Energy sector to tackle the shortage of electricity and power problems in Pakistan. Additionally China is helping Pakistan in defense related activities. In long-term the two governments have accorded to continue to play the lead role in providing a strategic framework and institutions of cooperation and guiding and facilitating economic and commercial interaction. China and Pakistan have formalized the setting-up of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). China has a lot to gain from its economic corridor arrangement with Pakistan; its centuries’ old vision of reaching the warm waters through the shortest route is coming to completion through peaceful ways. When the corridor is constructed it will expand the number of trade routes between China and the Middle East and Africa. Energy security is a key concern for China, as it is the world's biggest oil importer, and oil pipelines through Pakistan would cut out ocean travel through Southeast Asia. China peace full rise and struggle to achieve their goals of development in their underdeveloped Areas face different internal and external challenges in different shapes and Pakistan as a partner also focused on same interest. China –Pakistan economic corridor is not a an incident or sudden arrangement but it has been planning since 1950’s .China is a land lock country from three sides .China wanted to extend its borders to the Pakistan’s deep sea port on the Arabian Sea. In 2002 China started to construct the Gwadar Port and completed in 2006. The stepping stone of China Pakistan was the construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1970s From Pakistani town of Havalian in Hazara division to Khunjerab Pass, the border of China and Pakistan. China decleared Kashghar, as special Economic Zone (SEZ) and important transit route between China and Pakistan in 2010 (Ahmar).
The recent China-Pakistan Economic Corridor project initiative has taken by the Premier of China Li Keqiang and Nawaz Sharif on 22, May, 2013 in Islamabad. In Feb 2014, Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussian visited China to discuss the plan. Further, Pakistan and China has signed an agreement to invest $46billion dollars on this huge multidimensional project (Isphani, June 1989). Moreover, this corridor is not confined only to the Pakistan, but it is having a vision to construct Silk road through Central Asia,South East Asia and South Asia of One Belt One Road (OBOR). President Xigiping presented this idea in 2013.If we look into the broader aspect of economic belt it does not mean that China will be the only beneficiary but Central Asia, South East Asia and south asia will also gain the advantage of its strategic location, potentials and natural resources.It will open up the ways for political cooperations and will help in the promotion of cultural ties.
China wants to enhance its access to the new markets, because China is emerging as a giant economic power and it needs greater demands nationaly or internationally. People’s Republic of China which is second largest economy established its diplomatic relations with Pakistan on May 21,1951,these relations then converted into bilateral trade and economic cooperation which extensively deepened politically, and economically.The Economic prosperity of any country is directly or indirectly depends upon its geographical structure. The driving forces or tools for the furious economy are roads, infrastructure, education, and boarder’s location and their links. But in spite of all these blessings if we don’t have good governance or management then this geographical structure is mere a documented feature for any country. Let’s have a glance at the strategic locations of both Pakistan and China. Pakistan is very important country of South Asia and its strategic location is of high significance in the region .Pakistan shares common border with the China and India both are world’s largest and populous states. Pakistan is located close to the oil rich Persian Gulf. Pakistan provides access to the warm waters of Indian Ocean. Pakistan strategic importance was developed since 1979 when Red Army invaded Afghanistan but at that time the Pakistan territory used for military purposes and borne disadvantages. But now Pakistani authorities with the calibration of Chinese authorities know the positive importance of their strategic location.
First time Pakistan will take the economic benefit from its strategic location. Pakistan importance further strengthens by its nearness to the Strait of Hormuz because supply route for largest oil reserves (Nauman, 26 July,2015). China is located in South East Asia along the costal line of Pacific Ocean; China is third largest country in the world. China is bordered by 14 countries orea,Vietnam,Laos,Burma,India,Bhutan,Nepal,Pakistan,Afghanistan,Tajikistan,Kyrgystan,Kazakastan,Mongolia,and Russia. Marine-side neighbors include eight countries, North Korea, Korea, Japan, Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam (Lau 2015)
One Belt One Road (OBOR) is not initiated for export and import only but there is a great strategy behind this .China wants to take the full-fledged advantage of its location and no doubt it also gives the opportunity to the bordered countries to think about their economic potentials which lies in their countries (Lau, 2015).
Strategic significance of CPEC and Xinjiang
Every activity revolve around the economy and definitely strategic importance more enhance when it gives the surety of cooperation between the countries ,well developed infrastructure ,contain social and political unrest and borders connections with the economic prosperity. Similarly CPEC is a huge and multidimensional project is considerable from its map. As it is obvious from its vision of One Belt One Road (OBOR) or new Silk Road Economic Development Corridor (SRED), CPEC is the concept, which is giving a surety of full-fledge cooperation between the China and West, Central Asia and South Asia. It will generate thousands of jobs, employment opportunities, construction and re-construction of infrastructure, industrial zones, wind and thermal power projects. Billions of dollars investment includes construction of roads, railway lines and other modern communications from the Chinese Province of Xinjiang to the Gwadar Port(Xiguang 2015).
This corridor is not only confined to the Pakistan , China Strategy to make this corridor a source of shipping millions of tons of goods from China to Middle East ,Africa and Europe through the Gwadar Port. China is rising peacefully because of their industries and non violence policies, and there economic position is going to strong day by day. The Chinese products captured the domestic markets of different European and non European states and the world population demands of Chinese products increases day by day. So China needs energy to run its industries in the form of oil and gas, so through this corridor the construction of gas and oil pipe lines will be constructed which will meet the energy demands.
Another strategic benefit of this corridor is that it will reduce the distance and time .Through Strait of Malacca it takes 45 days to reach the Europe but through Gwadar Port it will take only ten days this will also save the money and time for china and the other side such a benefits also increase the demand of Chinese product, because Chinese industries quickly and cheaply provide their product to international markets. Backward and deprived regions in China, Pakistan, Middle East and Central Asia would be greatly benefited from this corridor (Ahmar).
China needs markets to sell its goods and purchase raw material to run its industries. CPEC foremost objective is to develop its Western Province Xinjiang to create more and more opportunities for the people and diminish the resentments of the Xinjiang.
Similarly in Pakistan, Baluchistan and KPK are the provinces which are deprived and under developed province, Sindh also fell into the hands of State rivals and Punjab is considered developed but mostly of its part is underdeveloped.
The Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) consist of three corridor .the Northern Corridor from Beijing through Moscow and Germany (European cities), and The Central Corridor from Chinghai to Europe (and Persian Gulf), through Tashkent, Tehran, and Bandar Imam Khomeini Port of Iran. The Southern Corridor from Guangzhou through Xinjiang, and then from Khunjrab Pass to Gawadar Port, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf. Another Strategic importance of CPEC is Maritime Silk Road which is called as 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (CMSR) .Maritime Roads means routes that is based on sea paths through China Sea, South Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean (conference).
For Pakistan it is not just a matter of interest it is a dire need of internal harmony, peace and prosperity. It will connect the cities; maximize the improvement of infrastructure, communication system, and industries which are not working due to the energy crises. Terrorism is another cause which has made the Pakistan atmosphere not suitable for investments. Youth have become despair because lack of facilities and opportunities .Once Pakistan completed CPEC, skillful and positive youth will come forward .By the times the things will be better.
Pakistan will be self-sufficient and will no more in need of loans, debts and aid. Our economy would be our strength and will lead the Pakistan to be an independent foreign policy maker.
If Pakistan wants to stop the curse of terrorism then it has to take initiative sincerely to overcome the resentments of the deprived provinces.
Education sector in CPEC project should give much more importance because it will work as an instant to the development. Through Built and road Scholarships Hundred of Pakistanis went to China last year of higher studies and mostly these students are from KP and Balochistan. China needs short and cheaper route and route through Indian Ocean is quite cheap and less time taking as compare to Malacca Strait of Hormuz.
Strait of Hormuz is full of risk because of the danger of piracy. Another fear for China that Malacca route is dominated by the united states of American led Asian alliance. Malacca route can be blocked whenever the tensions would be rise. China’s 80% energy imports flow through Strait of Malacca. Sea routes are very important strategically because it will help China to make its influence greater in the South Asia. India is a big threat for both Pakistan and China stability. So by the access to the Indian Ocean China would be able to keep an eye on the movements of the Indian Navy.
China is hoping that if Western Province Xinjiang would be stable economically, then the whole western part would be stabilized both politically and socially. China is confronting with the same evils, with which Pakistan is suffering (conference).
Background of unrest in Xinjiang
The ethnic problem and extremist elements in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonyms Region is still a big problem for China internal and external security. Xinjiang remain a source of instability for Beijing. The issue inside Xinjiang is basically ethnic but due to some religious restriction from Chinese government on Uyghur, the ethnic issue change to violence, bombing and terrorist activities. Historically the Uyghur consider their community separate from other Chinese communities. The Uyghur are different from Chinese in different ways. The linguistic and religious differences amongst the Chinese and Uyghur make both the ethnic group separate from each other socially, politically and culturally. The Uyghur are basically central Asians and Turks, and that’s why still the Uyghur Support and Adopt their culture, language and way of life. According to Uyghur’s Xinjiang was not a part of China, it was an independent state of Uyghur and other Muslim ethnic groups. The Uyghur are Sunni Muslim and have close connection with the Muslim community. The unrest in Xinjiang and the terrorist affiliation of these groups with the foreign extremist element compels Beijing to take sever action against them for the purposes to avoid such threats to China sovereignty. The Xinjiang Muslim wants a separate state in the name of East Turkistan but the Beijing cannot compromise on their territorial disintegration. For last several years thousands of people were killed and many Chinese officials were kidnapped. The people of Xinjiang enjoyed two time de facto independence from nineteen thirty three to nineteen forty nine but after 1949 the Chinese authority control the region again and bring some restrictive policies in the land, which is against the fundamental religious rights of Uyghur’s and very much helpful for the Han Chinese. So such policies make Uyghur against the Han Chinese within Xinjiang and also start violence’s and separatist movements against Beijing authorities.
The old Silk Route and China-Pakistan connection
The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is basically the re-energized of old Silk Route. The silk route was past connection between China, Europe, middle eastern countries and Africa, but due to some political and geographical changes in international system the old silk route was inactive and cannot revitalize by the states(Wizarat 2012). The history of old silk route trace back to two thousand year ago, because China was very famous for knowledge and producing Silk ,the world demand of Silk were fulfill by the traders of different countries through this particular route. The old historical route play important role in connection of Asian with Europe. The old silk route was firstly discussed by the German Geographer name Ferinand Von Richthofen thousands years ago, that the east and west connection was possible through the land route.
The twenty fist century archeological discoveries in southern side of Siberia around pazyryk ,and the frozen tombs of nomadic time shows and tell us the story of Chinese trader and there connection of trade, culture exchange and geographical connection with Central Asia and Eurasia. The Scythian reached through this route to Mongolia and ruled over china for several years. So China was closely connected with Eurasia through old silk route because the archeological site inside the Europe and inside the China’s Xinjiang clearly shows cultural and economic exchange between both regions. The Fazyryk toms was the evidence of China and southern Siberia, because the Chinese Silk and Bronze were used for demise, most of the archeological excavation were seen along the silk route areas inside Europe and Asia about the Chinese Eurasia connection of historical silk route(Wavgh 2002).
In prehistoric period there are two important routs which were used for trade, cultural and knowledge exchange between East and west of the world. The one route called Spice and the other major route called Silk route. China was geographically very important because these routes from west end in China and from east side started from China. The Spice Route was used just six to seven percent for world product exchange and the major Silk Route was used round about sixty percent for world product and culture exchange(Sadik Ridvan Karluk December 2014).
The old silk route covered more than fourty different states in past history and consists of two main branches. The one branch cover Indian side and the other pass through now called turkey and then from turkey to Europe. The route was not only used for trade but also have important role in religion exchange between various states of the world and especially between turkey and China’s Xinjiang province. In Xinjiang still most of the ethnic groups have Turkic origin; their culture, custom and language and also body language are similar with the people of turkey(Waugh 2010).
In pre modern time the Silk Road on track from the city of Xi’an to Turkic areas across mountains and desolate tract and through multiple routes reached to Anatolia. The end point of the route was Europe throughout The getaway of Thrace. The Silk Road divided into two branches in Iran, one connected Latakia of Syria and the other leads towards Anatolia. The Anatolian bough further divided into three routes. The first road on track in Kars-Ani and go throughout Artvin, Trabzon, GümüĢhane, Erzurum, Sivas, Tokat, Amasya, Kastamonu, Adapazarı, Ġzmit, Ġstanbul, and finished in Edirne. The second route started from Eastern Beyazıt and leads through Ağrı, Erzurum, Erzincan, and then to Sivas.In Sivas the route divided further into two other twigs. One passed through Tokat, Amasya, Gerede, Ġstanbul, and the other through Kayseri, Ankara, Bilecik, Bursa, Ġznik, Ġzmit, and Ġstanbul. The last three boughs were use maritime roads to reach the capital of Ephesus and Miletus. The Aegean Sea and Trabzon and Sinop of the Black Sea, were also under these routs, and Alanya and Antalya of the Mediterranean Sea, was also used by these routes, before interning in to Europe(Sadik Ridvan Karluk December 2014).
Maritime Silk Economic Corridor
The Chinese president Xi Jinping first time presents the proposal of energizing the old route connection of east and west. According to his important speech on September 7, 2013 in Kazakhstan, the president declare that it is very important for China and central Asian states to revitalized the old silk route, because centuries before Europe and China and Central Asian were connected through this particular route. The china president was very clear about the making of economic zones and reestablishing of the silk route, because he invites the regional states and especially Central Asian to play cooperative role in this project. The central Asian and China have old connection trough culture and strategic location of Xinjiang. The central Asian states share border with China through Xinjiang Uyghur Autonyms region, and China face allots of problem from that particular region of Xinjiang in shape of terrorism. So the Xi Jinping wants to develop both the region through these economic developmental policies in shape reviving of old silk route to the new silk route(Cohen 2013).
Militancy VS CPEC in Baluchistan and Xinjiang
Before going to explain the eastern and western route controversy we have to mention the three proposed routes by the CPEC project in Pakistan.
Eastern route will pass through;
Gwadar-Turbat-Panjgur-Khuzdar-Ratodero-Kashmore-Rajanpur-DeraGhaziKhan-Multan-Faislabad-Pindi Bhatian-Rawalpindi-Hasanabdal-and onwards.
Central route will pass through;
Gwadar-Turbat-Punjgur-Khuzdar-Ratodero-Kashmore-Rajpur-Dera Ghazi Khan-Dera Ismail Khan-Bannu-Kohat-Peshawer-Hasanabdal-and Onwards.
Western route will pass through Gwadar-Turbat-Hoshab-Panjgur-Besmia-Kalat-Quetta-Qila Saifullah-Zhob-Dera Ismail Khan-Mianwali-Attock-Hasanabdal-and onwards
The Strategic location of Eastern Route:
The Eastern route is longer than the western and central route. Eastern route has given the name eastern on the basis of eastern side of Pakistan where Punjab is located. Punjab is considered developed from the beginning since independence of Pakistan. But as far as it is importantly concerned that the main issue is the passage of eastern route from the already developed area in Punjab, the backward areas comes under the eastern route is south and central Baluchistan, northern Sindh and southern Punjab but mostly it will pass through the developed area of central Punjab. The productivity rate is high, because the land acquired by central Punjab is fertile and green so the result of disturbed people will also high.
In order to connect the internal areas of Pakistan, definitely roads are in need. For this purpose the roads, which already exist if not in better condition than it will also rebuild and where roads are not exist then it will also build.
Gwadar to Ratodero road is exist but most of the part of road is need to be built.
For Pakistan the foremost concern is to provide security to the worker, and according to the details the eastern route is more secure as compare to the western route.
The eastern route map shows that it will also pass though the Khyber Pukhtun Khwa (Sial 2014).
The Strategic Location of Western Route:
The western route is shorter then Eastern and central route. This route will pass through those areas which are
below the poverty line, people are ignorant very few people are qualified, unemployment rate is high. So this
route is having many opportunities to these backward areas.
The areas through which the western route will pass are barren. Automatically population density is low in turn the people will displaced and suffered would also low. The areas along with the western route are arid and hilly. It wills coos the Indus river Between Peshawar and Hasanabdal. It requires wide and good quality of road. Security issues are relatively higher than the eastern route. This route covers two provinces Baluchistan and KPK in Pakistan and both the provinces are under the extremism and terrorism.
CPEC and Xinjiang Uyghur separatist in Pakistan
Xinjiang is a factor between China and Pakistan One Built and One Route Project, China signs an agreement with his all weather friend, Pakistan to invest forty six billion dollars in different developmental projects. The Chinese President Xi Jinping visit in April to Islamabad and announce in a high official meeting, that china is interesting to invest in Pakistan and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonyms region in shape of China-Pakistan Economic Corridors (Ritzinger August, 2015). The question rises here that why China want to invest billions of dollars in Pakistan and Xinjiang? There are different reason and interests of China behind this huge investment of china inside Pakistan and Xinjiang. I am trying to allocate and touch the most important and relevant areas and goals of china. The aims behind this project are to develop western region of china and underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, to avoid the most threaten problem of terrorism and extremism and also ethnic issues of Baluchistan and Xinjiang. The Corridor route project will be a direct connection between Kashgar of china and Gwadar of Pakistan. Xinjiang and Baluchistan are considered the home of ethnic violence and separatism and also both provinces are poor in different perspective, socially politically and economically. Both the provinces have great potential of natural resources and geographical location. The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonyms Region connect Central Asian states with central china and also connect shortly China with Pakistan and Europe , but the problem in Xinjiang from several years of terrorism and separatism make some difficulties for china Foreign and internal policies. The relationship between China and Pakistan is unique in the structure of international system, both the countries like brother and has great trust on each other, because both the countries have same goals and objective. India is a factor in strengthening the relationship of both countries in the issues of Tibet and Kashmir. The Indian factor of Tibet with China and Kashmir with Pakistan play very important role in the connection of China and Pakistan mutual cooperation. Both China and Pakistan supported each other in revilers with India. China is struggling to strengthen their position particularly in the region and generally in international level, for which China must contain India at regional level and United State at international level. The most important indicative of China for India and United State is CPEC. The Chinese Authority know that any time India and USA can blocked the China trade through Strait of Melaka, because of the presence of US navy in Indian ocean. So China is trying to reduce and diverse there way of trade from south China sea and Indian ocean, and focusing on Central Asian natural resources and CPEC.
Security is the top priority of both the countries, to strengthen their economic developmental projects. The most important goal for China is to reach the rich resources of central Asia and Middle East, and for Pakistan the important interest is to develop their economic position and solve energy issues. China Pakistan economic Corridor has been a land mark to fulfill both the countries objectives and goals, but before that achievement both the countries faced security problems for last several years. The Uyghur militants inside Xinjiang are a challenge for China internal and also external security, because these groups have linkages with the other terrorist groups, who operate inside Pakistan. The East Turkistan Islamic movement is an active terrorist organization inside Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomy’s region, and involved in several terrorist attacks inside China western province and Pakistan tribal areas. The other side Pakistan base terrorist organization like TTP and other groups has close ties with ETIM, and also with the Islamic movements of Uzbekistan. So such a relationship between these terrorist groups is a big challenge to the Chinese and Pakistani workers inside the CPEC. In Xinjiang the Uyghur separatist movements and terrorist organization can challenge any time the Chinese Economic Zones in the region. China with the collaboration of Pakistan needs to avoid such militants from his region Xinjiang. Pakistan started operation inside his tribal agencies in the name of Zarb –I Azab, to avoid all terrorist groups, and especially ETIM and Uyghur Terrorist. The president of Pakistan Mamnoon Hussain visited to Beijing and declares in a public meeting that, Pakistan eliminated all china militants, who operated in North Waziristan areas for so many years. So Pakistan with the cooperation of China work to finish the entire extremist and terrorist element, to achieve there best interest of materializing China Pakistan economic project. The security issue in both countries is a dangerous part of this project, because Xinjiang is the starting place of CPEC route and Baluchistan is the ending point, and both the areas pace militant’s issue. So the security issue must be resolved before materializing the project, and both the countries utilizing there recourses to eliminate this issue. The foreign Terrorist groups inside Pakistan and Afghanistan are not against China, as we compare with the united state, but The East Turkistan Islamic Movements and the Islamic movement of Uzbekistan play active role to challenge Chinese interest inside Pakistan(Rana 2014). The leaders of these organizations declare so many times, that our main interest inside Pakistan is to attack China goals in Pakistan and other world outside china. In past so many Chinese worker and engineers were killed and kidnap in Pakistan. The Gwadar port is under china authority and influence now and China investing billion dollars in Activation of this port. The end place of China Pakistan Economic route is Baluchistan, which is full of natural resources, but the Bloch ethnic issue is also a challenge for both countries interest through the Gwadar port. Xinjiang and Baluchistan both are underdeveloped areas and the problems faced by the two different provinces is closely related to the Economic inequalities and state policies. In Xinjiang the Uyghur is unhappy with the Han migration and there dominant role in politics and socio-economic activities, and same is the case in Baluchistan the local people feel deprivation from migrated people and also from government. Xinjiang natural resources has great importance for China, and after materialization of economic project these resources can be utilize, but the Uyghur and local residents cannot be compromise with government, because of win lose situation between Han and Uyghur’s. The China- Pakistan economic Corridor passed through those areas in Xinjiang and also in Pakistan, which were populated highly by militants. The historical event in Xinjiang and Pakistan clearly shows that if such militants were not abolished, in future it will be challenge the relationship and economic project of both the countries. The security issue from Xinjiang and also from Pakistan must be resolved, and both the countries recently joined hand with each other to eliminate all those terrorist groups and separatist movement who is challenge to economic project.
Geographical location of CPEC and Terrorist Elements
As we know that Baluchistan is the most important province of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan because of their geographical location and natural resources, but still no one can underestimate its strategic importance. As it has left under developed by the elected governments for last several years, whenever they came in power Baluchistan potential has also underestimated. The people of Baluchistan also did not give much attention to their developments. Now once again Baluchistan is facing a new challenges and opportunities. But this time people have chosen the government by their own consensus .And this is the moral or legal obligations on empowered party to fulfill the needs and demands of these citizens and do not underestimate the value of its strategic importance and make the best use of CPEC project. The CPEC project covered not some but all the underdeveloped areas of Baluchistan, which promote and develop local people and also create opportunities for local traders, but once again the militants and foreign troops inside the Pak-afghan border is a challenging point for this project. Recently Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visits to dera ismial khan, and inaugurated 258km lunge motorway, which is the part of western route project(Babar 2016). Such developmental projects will help local people and play great role in development of KP and Baluchistan. Once the Baluchistan would be developed the whole Pakistan would be developed. The role of central government is very important. Provincial government and ruling party must be determinant if they really want prosper and terror free Pakistan.
Ritzinger (2015) in his article “The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Regional Dynamics and China’s Geopolitical Ambitions” mentioned that China is going to invested $46 billion on CPEC project but the project is challenged by the disturb security, and domestic politics. Changing political decisions over CPEC routes has produced complexity in political environment especially in KPK and Baluchistan. Security situation is not suitable for Chinese workers. They need tough security for the workers. In Baluchistan separatist and extremist targeted the Chinese workers. The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonyms region have closed relationship with the Afghan Taliban, and both terrorist support each other in their agenda. The Afghan Taliban groups fight against US with the calibration of ETIM, for the purposes to retain the past government of Taliban and the other side the Uyghur terrorist groups and especially ETIM fight against Chinese for the proposes to achieve independence from Han majority ethnic.
China and Pakistan Combating Militancy
China-Pakistan economic corridor is very important to strengthen their relations and it is very important that Author analyzing the strategic significance Of China Pakistan economic corridor. For China this corridor will reduce 12000 kilometers route to the 2,500-2,700 kilometers route. The corridor project also gives potential to regional stability and economic integration but efforts are being practicing to dismantle the feasibility of the CPEC project(Sial 2014). The Political controversy between different political parties over the eastern and western alignment and the security issues of western route, political stability, and security issues in Baluchistan and overall Pakistan like terrorism should be surmounted for the completion of the project. So at the end of the day it is very important for policy maker and researcher to mentioned the political parties reservation and controversy in detail over the Eastern and western routes, its utility and Government’s role in the implementation of CPEC project and how it would be resolved(Abbas 2008).
Pakistan first time has got an opportunity to take the advantage of its strategic location via China-Pakistan Economic Corridor(CPEC).CPEC is multidimensional project and will ensure deeper ties between Pakistan and China relationships not only this but also connecting most important regions of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Middle East .Instability, disrupted economy, are serious concerns. China is also confronting with the three evils separatism, extremism and terrorism in the western province of Xinjiang. Pakistan’s government must have to take quickly action to develop its affected provinces and must resolve this issue of eastern or western route .Each province development and prosperity is important but affected provinces are in need to resolve their issues. Economic corridor link economic agents along a defined geographical entity and provide important connections between economic nodes or hubs that are usually centered in urban land escapes (Waugh 2010).
The peaceful rise of China in the world structure has a great importance for his underdeveloped region Xinjiang. The rise of China is not a threat to Xinjiang Uyghur Autonyms Region, but Xinjiang is a threat for Chinese interest in the global and especially in the region. The Uyghur militants and their relationships with the global terrorist organizations from several years was a serious challenging point for Chinese foreign policy.
Xinjiang is basically a Muslim populated area of China and ethnically these Muslim connected with Turks and central Asians. These Muslims were known as Uyghur’s and they consider Xinjiang his home land, and also have perceptions that this particular area was not a part of China, but the Chinese controlled it by force. The Xinjiang problem of separatism was raises after the 2009 attacks of some militants groups over public gathering and official buildings. As a response the People liberation Army attacks which recourse further destructions. In the beginning the Xinjiang issue was Ethnic but when the Chinese authorities Ban some official Muslim from fasting in month of Ramadan, the Uyghur and other ethnic groups who are Muslims start deferent destructive movements. In response the Chinese government makes more restrictive policies for that region and ethnic minorities.
The majority of Han were migrated to Xinjiang to balance their demographic position and control the ethnic issue of separatism, but failed. The Uyghur ethnic make East Turkistan Islamic Movement as an organization for supporting their agenda of separatism. The other side in Pakistan, all the provinces in general and Baluchistan in specific are in continuous struggle to have an adequate share in national financial resources, water, representation in national legislature, and quota in public jobs etc but these thing by themselves lead t sectarianism and ethnic polarization giving a negative impact to economic development due to which mega projects are not going to initiate and so changes the forth coming prosperity into a misery. China Pakistan economic corridor(CPEC) is actually a framework for Economic stability In underdeveloped Areas of both countries particularly and generally for the whole regional economic prosperity. It is more than the geographical routes arrangements, it includes intra- state institutional arrangements and their coordination with each other. The major advantage of CPEC is that it connects the whole region and gives Pakistan a focal importance for world trade. It is not just a minor aid but it is a mega project which is renounced by the China in Central Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (Hussain, 2015). Currently both the countries are working hard to develop their most important economic project of CPEC but both the countries also face different hurdles to fulfill this aim. China need security for their workers of CPEC and Pakistan must provide it to secure their interest. The most important issue for materializing the project is not political environment but security issue. There are three dimension of unrest which faced both the countries. First the issue of Xinjiang and ETIM presence in Pakistan, Second the unrest inside Baluchistan, and the third issue is global terrorism. So such challenges can any time abolish the materialization of CPEC. Pakistani authorities after the army public school incident become very serious against terrorist elements, because all the civil and military institution joined hand for countering terrorism under the formation of National Action Plan (NAP). China is also support Pakistan economically and materially, in counter terrorism policy.