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The Impact of Constitutional Provisions on Educational Achievements: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and South Korea

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Education is the only opportunity for a nation to attain sustainable development among rapidly changing nations across the globe in the 21st century. For that reason education has been recognized a fundamental right to the citizens of modern states of the contemporary world. Every state has secured this fundamental right of citizens through constitutional provisions. Constitutional provisions provide a guiding framework for the action taken by the responsible authorities of the state. The current study investigated the constitutional provisions of Pakistan and South Korea for the education of general people. Both the countries have made provisions for education and both have made different attempts to realize these provisions in the true sense. The constitution of Pakistan 1973 mentioned education as a subject in Article 25A, 37, and 38 (d) which states the government will eradicate illiteracy in minimum possible time, and education at secondary level will be free and compulsory for all the citizens of the state. On the other hand article 31 of the Korean constitution explains the educational commitments of the state. The efforts made by both the states in implementing the constitutional provisions have made the difference in the educational achievement of both the states. Pakistan having 58% literacy rate as compared to 99% literacy rate of South Korea illustrate the variations. All the governmental policies have three elements; Sustainability, Outreach, and Impact. Despite of sustainability and outreach sometimes desired results do not come from the policy due to ineptness of impact factor. Therefore this study will assess the impact factor of the constitutional provisions of Pakistan and South Korea prerequisite to free and compulsory quality education.


1-Muhammad Imran Ashraf
Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Syed Umair Jalal
M.Phil. Scholar, Department of Political Science, University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.


Constitutional Provisions, South Korea, Education, Literacy

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I - I

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Published: Dec 2018

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