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Ideological Underpinnings for Pakistan (1947 onwards)

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Starting with Islam to base the framework and working of a nation state andthen leading the state based on varying interpretations of the same ideology (Islam) including liberal interpretations, socialism, sharia, moderate version of it- Pakistan is one of those states which have been basing itsnational narrative on ideology. Ideology thus brought more challenges than achieving national objectives and national interests. Additionally, ideological underpinnings and its various indices made it easy for political elite to further their schema and safeties and get peoples backing as legitimacy for their vested political interests. This respective paper anticipates to analyze this very attitude of political elite as they counted on and exploited ideological beliefs of masses along with manipulating their belief for own peculiar interests and get backing for their flawed domestic and foreign policies. Furthermore, this paper aims at assessing how political elite managed to fragment the social and political fabric with their vague reliance on ideological indexes, thus fetching national security challenges.


1-Muhammad Imran Ashraf
Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Fariha Ahmad Hashmi
M. Phil. Scholar, Department of IR, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.


Ideology, Manifestations, Vested Political Interests, National Security, challenges, National Interests, Strategic Appraisal, and Legitimacy

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Published: Dec 2020

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